Citywide Incremental Housing Construction in BhubaneshwarBack To Projects
This project, which began in 2010, involves incremental housing construction and upgrading in the Dumduma, Nayapalli Sabar Sahi, and Bharatpur settlements in Bhubaneshwar, Orissa. It falls under the Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP) scheme of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The Alliance has been a part of the planning and designing of the in-situ upgrading of settlements. The Alliance’s strategy is to focus on slum upgrading and water and sanitation provision rather than housing. The strong role played by the community shows the potential for projects such as this to be scaled up.Location: Dumduma, Nayapalli Sabar Sahi and Bharatpur, Bhubaneshwar, India
To date, two hundred and twenty-seven (227) units in Bhubaneswar and thirty-eight (38) units in Puri have been completed while the others are under construction and at different phases of completion. The houses either:
- Simplex Type I (Ground structures)
- Duplex Type II (Ground +1)
- Duplex Type III
Each of the houses is provided with water, electricity and individual toilets.Community capacity:
The community is involved in project management, housing construction, and surveying of households for the recommendation of subsidy recipients. Construction is completed under the direction of the Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres (SPARC) is taken on by local NGO-UDRC and Mahila Milan who work as community contractors. However, in Bharaptur and Dumduma where the beneficiaries themselves construct their own houses and the Municipality pays the funds directly to the respective households.Scale:
The housing projects we are currently implementing under one component of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). That is, the Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP), which envisages the construction in-situ of formal housing in slums. However, budgetary allocations are so limited that barely one or two percent of the population can benefit. Consequently, the Alliance has been advising the Government of India to give less importance to housing (which is a private good) and more importance to public goods like water, sanitation and other basic amenities. The same Rupee goes much further in terms of impact when spent on basic amenities rather than housing. We are hopeful that our advocacy in this regard will bring policy change.Impact:
Relationships between the community and local authorities have strengthened through this project as the process involves negotiations with high level Government officials. This negotiation has enabled SPARC to engage with Government on policy matters – involving universal provision of basic amenities like water and sanitation. Certain officials’ attitudes towards the Federation have improved, recognizing and valuing the role of community participation in development.Finance: SDI Contributions:
SDI contributed US$440,000.00Resources Leveraged:
The project mobilises and leverages a range of resources, and as many resources as possible, from Government, the private sector and the families directly benefiting from the project, including land, infrastructure, finance and cost recovery. Architects without Borders (ASF) Sweden has been assisting the Alliance with technical issues and designs.State Subsidy:
The State subsidy was accessed through the BSUP component of the JNNURM scheme. The Central Government of India, State and Local Government provide fifty percent (50%), thirty percent (30%) and ten percent (10%) of the subsidy respectively.Costs recovered from community:
None to date.
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Project information updated: 23 March 2016
Project in depth
The Alliance has been a part of the planning and designing processes for the in-situ upgrading of houses and infrastructure in the three settlements – Dumduma, Nayapalli Sabar Sahi and Bharatpur since 2009. Dumduma is a relocated settlement from the centre of the city, as a result of city expansion leading to Government relocation of residents in 1989. There are approximately two thousand five hundred (2,500) households in this settlement. Bharatpur’s population is roughly three thousand (3,000) households. Some of these households were established there in 1989, the rest coming in 1992 and 1999. Nayapalli is a smaller settlement, which is located on private land owned by the community. Approximately one hundred and ten (110) households eside there.
Shack Dwellers International (SDI) provided financial support in the form of capital grant funds to enable the implementing partner (SPARC-SSNS) to receive grants for project construction and related costs. This particular grant fund was provided to bear construction costs of housing projects being undertaken by the Alliance in three settlements of Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
The incremental construction and/or upgrading of houses in Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The Alliance was contracted to construct a total of seven hundred and fifty (750) houses in the three slums of Bhubaneswar and a futher one hundred and sixty-one (161) houses of Puri. The Alliance did a thorough evaluation of these households to check their ability to raise the start up capital to construct their houses on thier own. Only families that did not have the capacity to self construct were taken up by the Alliance. Consequently, the Alliance agreed to construct two hundred and fifty-three (253) houses in Bhubaneswar and fifty-five (55) houses in Puri.Community capacity:
Savings groups had already been set up in all three communities for general purposes, but now they focus specifically on housing. It has been difficult to collect the ten percent (10% = Rs. 170,000) community contribution towards housing required to access the subsidy as most of the residents in these settlements are daily wage earners. Despite this, the communities have managed to collect the required money. Savings practices will enhance local livelihoods and help to ensure cost recovery for service provision and housing investment leading to asset consolidation.
The project will strengthen local communities through their active engagement in the mapping and enumeration of their settlements. These communities will be empowered to engage directly with the state to ensure that other state resources are spent more effectively, including those for the maintenance of basic infrastructure.Scale:
The intention is that this project sets a precedent for the delivery of infrastructure for the urban poor, namely in-situ settlement upgrading, in India. The project can then be replicated in settlements across the country.Impact:
The intention is to improve the lives of the urban poor in these settlements by providing them with safe houses to live in and increasing their access to sanitation facilities.
These projects have demonstrated community-led processes as in all the other BSUP projects there is no community involvement or participation at all. These kinds of projects are setting a precedent for Government to develop policies that recognize the importance of community participation.Finance: SDI Contributions:
SDI contributed US$440,000.00. US$360,000.00 of this amount went towards capital expenditure, whilst the different was used to cover project linked technical assistance costs.Resources Leveraged:
Funding modalities under the government scheme are as follows: the estimated house cost is subsidized by funds from Central (50%), State (30%) and Local Governments (10%). The remaining ten percent (10%) is to be contributed by beneficiaries. We have also received funds from CLIFF 1 and SPARC/SSNS bridge funds for construction purposes. Subsidy money from the Government is collected by the respective cities’ Municipal Corporation and released towards the cost of the house in phases as construction progresses. However, billing is often slow and there is a time lag between construction and payment from the municipality.State Subsidy:
The State susbidy was accessed through the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). It is a Central Government scheme that was launched by the Government of India under Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) as an initiative to redevelop urban towns and cities by developing infrastructure, municipal reforms and providing aid to the State Governments and the Urban Local Bodies, in order to develop urban India. The project is centred on ensuring that Government investment in slum upgrading is used to maximum effect inculcating new co-production modalities of pro-poor urban development within the State.Market Generated Returns:
None to date.Costs recovered from community:
As this project draws on Government subsidies, no loans were disbused. The funds will be recovered, hopefully in full, from the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC).
The community contribution as of today on the three sites are as follows:
- Nayapalli Sabar Sahi – Rs. 116,500 (from fifty-two members),
- Bharatpur – Rs. 286,750 (from one hundred and twenty-eight members), and;
- Dumduma – Rs. 52,600 (from fifty members).
Government of Orissa Housing & Urban Development Department. (2011). Annual Activities Report 2010 - 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.urbanodisha.gov.in/(S(mmsysc45j1g52d55er0ffn45))/pdf/annual_activity_report/Annual_Activities_Report_2010-11.pdf.
SPARC. (2012). BSUP in Eleven Cities: NTAG Study of BSUP Projects to Examine Potential for Community Participation. [Online]. Available: http://www.sparcindia.org/pdf/studies/BSUP%2011%20City%20Review,%20SPARC,%202012_low%20res.pdf.
The Hindu. (2010). Magsaysay Winner to Help Build Houses for Slum Dwellers, The Hindu. [Online]. Available: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-otherstates/magsaysay-winner-to-help-build-houses-for-slum-dwellers/article684083.ece.