Paknaan Sanitation

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Focus Areas: Water & Sanitation

The project, which began in September 2015, involves the construction of two (2) communal toilet blocks on a 6.545 hectare site provided by the Government. The need arose as a result of the massive eviction and relocation of the families to the Paknaan relocation site. Without the proper site preparations, sanitation facilities are lacking and the majority of residents resort to open defecation in the nearby spaces. Consequently, the aim of the project is to provide temporary sanitation faclities for those who have been relocated. At present, about four hundred and sixty-five (465) families have already relocated to the site, forty-one (41) of which are participants to the SDI-7 Cities project which has provided permanent housing units. The houses have also been used as model for future housing developments in the area.  

Location: Paknaan, Mandaue, Philippines


The construction of two (2) communal toilet blocks. The first toilet block has been completed, and it occupies a two hundred and nine square metre (209 sq. m) lot. Each block consists of six (6) cubicles and is designed to cater for men, women and persons with disabilities (PWD). The cubicles can accommodate wheelchairs and are more easily accessible for elderly members of the community. The female cubicles are separate from the men's; they are also partitioned from the public to ensure more privacy.

Community capacity:

Management of the project and its finances (including repayment to HPFPI) by the SMASH HOA gives the latter an opportunity to strengthen its organization through the active participation of all its members in the project as well as train them in various aspects of project management  including financial management.

SMASH HOA is responsible for the management and maintenance of the communal toilet. Members will be identified to oversee the operations and maintenance of the facility, on a weekly basis. The caretaker will receive fifteen percent (15%) of the daily cash collection. 


Although the project was initiated and partly financed by the SMASH HOA, the toilet blocks will serve members of three home owners' associations. 


The project demonstrates the capacity of a community to undertake upgrading initiatives and encourages others to initiate and pursue their own projects. 


SDI Contributions:

SDI contributed US$8,563.00.

Resources Leveraged:

The community was able to use heavy equipment such as a bulldozer for the construction of the toilet facility from the City Government. The city’s Housing and Urban Development Office facilitated the  site  preparation  and  the  selection  location  of  the  toilet  facilities. 

Market Generated Returns:

A pay-per-use system is utilised in this project, with users paying Php 3.00 per visit to the caretaker. This money will be used to pay the caretaker's wages and to cover maintenance costs.

Costs recovered from community:

In the first three weeks of use (Dec. 2015) a total of Php 4,900.00 (US$110.26, whereby US$1 = Php 44.44) was collected from residents. 

Maria Lourdes R. Domingo Price View Website
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Project information updated: 04 April 2016

Project in depth

Detailed Information

The sanitation project is located in the 6.545-hectare Government relocation site in Barangay Paknaan, Mandaue City. The site was provided by the city to accommodate families living along riverbanks, creeks and other high risk areas. Among those relocated were communities that have been affected by flash floods caused by heavy rains that hit Mandaue City in January 2011. The site has a total of one thousand two hundred (1,200) buildable lots, which is enough to accommodate members of twelve (12) homeowners associations comprised of one hundred (100) families each. 

The Sitio Mahayag Alliance of Structures Household, Incorporated (SMASH) Homeowners Association (HOA), which is an active member of the Homeless People's Federation Philippines, Inc. (HPFPI), is one of the twelve (12) HOAs relocated in the site. Its members were evicted from their homes in Mahiga Creek in November 2014 and transferred to the relocation site. Various parties, namely Tubig-Pagasa and Visayan Electric Company, have pledged to provide the residents with water services and electricity respectively. However, the SMASH HOA has raised the issue of lack of other infrastructure such as drainage and sanitation systems even in the form of portable toilets. The absence of toilets led residents to resort to open defecation.


The construction of two (2) communal toilet blocks with six (6) stalls each. The project aims to benefit forty-one (41) families (savers) who are part of the Sitio Mahayag Alliance of Structures Household, Inc. (SMASH HOA) as well as a further one hundred (100) to three hundred (300) families who are part of neighboring Homeowners Associations.

The project aims to provide temporary sanitation facilities until the drainage system is constructed, which will enable families to build individual toilets in their homes. 

Community capacity:

Members of the SMASH HOA were also participants to exchanges held in other communities such as the Lower Tipolo Homeowners Association, Inc. (LTHAI), which was one of the first  communities  that  implemented  upgrading  initiatives  in  Mandaue  City.  SMASH HOA members  were  exposed  to  community­-led  processes  in  planning,  and  implementation  and  management of projects.


The project has been initiated on one relocation site. However, there is potential to replicate this approach to basic sanitation facilities provision in other relocation sites. 


The biggest impact of this project will be seen in the decrease, and ultimately the cessation, of open defecation. This will be accompanied by a decrease in the number of health-related incidents being reported in the area.


SDI Contributions:

SDI contributed US$8,536. Of this amount US$2,202 was spent on project-linked technical assistance.

Costs recovered from community:

Costs are to be recovered from the community in the form of user-fees. 

Philippine Allaince. (2011). Construction Commences for 6.5ha Relocation Site's Model House. [Online]. Available:

Funding Information



Funding type:

Grant funding

Implementing Partners

Philippine Action for Community-led Shelter Initiatives (PACSII) & Homeless People's Federation of the Philippines Inc. (HPFPI)