Housing and Infrastructure Upgrading in Puri: Gokha SahiBack To Projects
This project, which began in 2012, aims to upgrade Gokha Sahi and Mangala Sahi settlements to the benefit of eight hundred (800) of two thousand five hundred (2,500) residents. The upgrades are to both housing and infrastructure. Alliance activity in this project supports plans from the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) scheme. Ninety percent (90%) of the funds for the project are from Government. The community contributes ten percent (10%) of the project funds. The in-situ upgrading process is being managed by the Alliance and residents.Location: Gokha Sahi, Puri, India
In situ upgrading of the settlement. This process began with the development of design guidelines as well as a layout plan. Housing plots are small, being twenty-five square metres (25m2). The house has one bedroom, a kitchen, living room, bath and toilet.
A number of the houses have been constructed in accordance with the (layout) plan. However, the sewerage connections are yet to be completed. The project has made use of existing infrastructure in the settlements and continued some of the internal cul-du-sac roads to strengthen connection. This helps facilitate future densification of the area.Community capacity:
The Alliance and residents are managing the entire in-situ upgrading process even though the project is under a Government subsidy scheme. Community and Alliance management of the project and inclusion of community in the planning meant that there were sufficient skills to continue project activity once Architects without Borders Sweden (ASF-Sweden) had gone.Scale:
This is part of a nationwide Government-sponsored slum upgrading scheme that is going to scale across the country. This project is being implemented in Puri in three (3) settlements - Gokha Sahi, Mangala Sahi and Mishra Nolia Sahi - and has potential to go to scale. The project has in place resources for amenities and services but a city wide strategy has yet to be developed. It is hoped projects like these will influence an overall strategy.Impact:
The experience has highlighted how members of the Federation and Mahila Milan, in the course of their regular and routinized interactions with Government officials, come to learn about how governmental systems operate. In turn, this boosts their self confidence in dealing with other Government departments and issues. Over a period of time we have seen a positive transformation in the attitudes of some officials in relation to the value of community participation in development.Finance: SDI Contributions:
SDI contributed US$13,563.00Resources Leveraged:
The Alliance was able to obtain technical support from Architects without Borders Sweden (ASF-Sweden). They assisted the Alliance with the surveying of these settlements, completing a sketch of the area which included layout plans and housing typologies. ASF-Sweden has been involved in slum upgrading in India since 2010.State Subsidy:
The State subsidy was monetary.Costs recovered from community:
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Project information updated: 11 March 2016
Project in depth
This project started in Gokha Sahi and Mangala Sahi in Puri. ASF participated in the project at its onset in 2010 and revisited the project in 2013. Gokha Sahi and Mangala Sahi are former fishing villages on the border of Puri – three kilometres (3km) from the town centre. Structures are mixed including larger solid structures with more traditional clay houses and corrugated steel shacks. The less developed areas have a combination of pucca and kutcha houses. The settlements are slowly being integrated into the city as it grows. Gokha is more urban than Mangala Sahi having more structures and less open spaces. Land on which structures are constructed is owned by residents while the surrounding space is owned by the Municipality.
In-situ settlement upgrade, which involves the construction of houses in an incremental manner. Design guidelines were put together focusing on indoor and outdoor construction, ventilation, and identity. The layout plan included small shops, a square, verandas, greeneries, and semi-private areas.Solutions to this included possibly merging plots together to create a more functioning structure and more useful outdoor space but consensus saw the importance of private ownership of land. Construction plans sought to include the daily life of residents meaning that new plans could not increase daily living expenses for inhabitants. Redevelopment of structures saw a more durable structure as well as details to improve quality of life.Community capacity:
The intention is for the community, that is the Alliance, to manage the entire upgrade process.Scale:
The intention is for the project to serve as a demonstration of how government-sponsored in-situ upgrading can be undertaken with the community at the helm. It is hoped that such a demonstration will subsequently influence the development city-wide strategy for the provision of services and amenities for the urban poor.Impact:
The housing projects we are currently implementing under one component of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) that is Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP) envisages the construction in-situ of formal housing in slums. However, budgetary allocations are so limited that barely one or two percent of the population can benefit. Consequently, we have been advising the Government of India to give less importance to housing (which is a private good) and more importance to public goods like water, sanitation and other basic amenities. The same rupee goes much further in terms of impact when spent on basic amenities rather than housing. We are hopeful that our advocacy in this regard will bring policy change.Finance: SDI Contributions:
SDI contributed US$13,563.00 towards capital expenditure.Resources Leveraged:
Collaboration focused on supporting the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) scheme, introduced in 2010, aiming to have a ‘slum free India.’ This falls under the Government’s JNNURM, which aims to modernize India’s cities. RAY schemes allow local authorities to dictate the course of upgrading depending on contextual factors and emphasise involvement of residents. Particular attention was paid to Odisha, working with SPARC’s partner Urban and Development Resource Centre (UDRC).State Subsidy:
US$688,207 has been leveraged from the State. Government funding meant that residents did not need to cover all the costs of construction yet a stronger presence is needed in the area to complete sewerage infrastructure.
Under the Government scheme, the estimated cost of a house is subsidized by funds from Central (50%), State (30%) and Local Governments (10%). The remaining ten percent (10%) is to be contributed by beneficiaries. Subsidy money from the Government is collected by the respective cities’ Municipal Corporation and released towards the cost of the house construction work progresses. Costs incurred for community mobilization, participation activities and initial capital for construction are borne by SPARC/Nirman through bridge funding in the form of grants and loans, and revolving funds from Community-led Infrastructure Funding Facility (CLIFF) and other such funds.Costs recovered from community:
Since no loans are provided to individuals, there are no costs to be recovered from the community. The money will be recovered, hopefully in full, from the relevant Government entity.
Hagn, A. (2011). Grounding India's National Urban Renewal Mission: Preliminary Findings from Puri, Orissa. [Online]. Available: http://www.northsouth.ethz.ch/colloquium/past_colloquia/collo_2011/Hagn_presentation.
Government of India. (2011). Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Overview. [Online]. Available: http://jnnurm.nic.in/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/PMSpeechOverviewE.pdf.
Johansson, L. & Josefson, E. (2011). From Different Perspectives: A Case Study of a Slum Area in Bhubaneswar, India. [Online]. Available: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:832281/FULLTEXT01.pdf.
The Pioneer. (2014). Puri Residents to get Rid of Drainage Woes Soon. [Online]. Available: http://www.dailypioneer.com/state-editions/bhubaneswar/puri-residents-to-get-rid-of-drainage-woes-soon.html.