Zambia Precedent Setting Water & Sanitation Project

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Focus Areas: Water & Sanitation

This project, which began in 2012, aims to create a sustainable citywide water and sanitation strategy, focusing on provision of sanitation to slum dwellers. Four precedent setting projects have been established. The first, is the construction of individual toilets. Second, is a shared septic tanks project; third, is the rehabilitation and management of public toilets in Kawama, and; lastly, bio-latrines will be constructed as part of the fourth precedent setting project. The settlement in which the bio-latrines will be constructed is yet to be identified. 

Location: Mulenga and Chambishi, Kitwe, Zambia

Deliverables:

To date, seven (7) individual ecosan toilets have been built in Kawama and four (4) in Mulenga. Even though precedent setting projects were planned in Kamatipa and Ipusikilo events that transpired forced project activity to move to Chambishi. Chambishi is located in neighbouring Kawama, and already has a housing project.

With respect to the shared septic tanks project in Kawama, individuals ended up building individual ecosan toilets instead.  

The rehabilitation and management of public toilets in Kawama. In Mulenga compound, construction of waterborne ablution blocks is planned for two (2) market places. Mulenga is seen as the starting point of this part of the project.

Lastly, the construction of bio latrines has not yet begun. Negotiations centred around this project have begun with the Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) and Water and Sanitation Association of Zambia (WASAZA) following a sanitation forum held by the Federation in Lusaka.

Community capacity:

The community's contribution was primarily in the form of mobilisation of new members as well as sensitising their neighbours on the importance of decent sanitation. In addition to this, four (4) local community artisans were trained and equiped with the skills to construct ecosan toilets.

Scale:

The project was piloted in a number of settlements in Kitwe. It has the potential to be scaled up to the national level. 

Impact:

The project has seen an increase in dialogue between Federation and non-Federation members, local authorities, and private sector service providers on the design and construction of low cost sanitation. This approach has provided the city of Kitwe with a new outlook on service provision (especially in terms of water and sanitation) while demonstrating the strength of local processes and their impact on slum upgrading. Relationships with NWSC and the City Council have progressed. 

Finance:

SDI Contributions:

SDI contributed US$44,750.00.

Resources Leveraged:

The Federation was able to leverage its presence in the target communities in negotiations with NWSC. The Federation’s presence in the two projects areas was important for NWSC, due to their weak ties to the community. The Kitwe Federation sought to formalize their relationship with NWSC and use this as an instrument to negotiate more affordable and sustainable modes of sanitation provision. This builds on a previous MoU signed with Kitwe City Council (KCC) that led to the Federation obtaining land at a reduced rate. 

Market Generated Returns:

None to date.

Costs recovered from community:

None to date. The recovered funds will be used to invest in more sanitation facilities as well as to cover operation and maintenance costs. 

Nelson Ncube nelson@peoplesprocess.org.zm (+260) 211 230 156 View Website
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Project information updated: 11 January 2016

Project in depth

Detailed Information

This project falls under the Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) programme, which is a five-year initiative aiming to help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)of improving sanitation worldwide. This is funded by the Department for International Development (DFID) in the UK and is supported by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). SDI is involved in a portion of this, addressing city-wide sanitation in cities in Africa.  SHARE projects in the SDI network occur in 4 core cities, Blantyre, Malawi; Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and; Kitwe, Zambia, with other cities being included at the end of each year. SHARE projects involve initial community-led profiling and enumerations of settlements – identifying obstacles to the attainment of adequate citywide sanitation as well as assessing needs, coverage, existing policies, infrastructure and Government participation or lack thereof. This in turn informs the various precedents that follow.
 
Project activity started in 2012 and was driven by the Zambian Alliance of the Poor People’s Federation (ZHPPF) and People’s Process on Housing and Poverty in Zambia (PPHPZ) with support from external stakeholders. SHARE funds were used in conjunction with UPFI funds for this project. 

Deliverables:

The initial aim was to construct individual ecosan toilets, septic tanks and to secure community contracts from NWSC for Federation members in Kamatipa and Ipusikilo settlements in Kitwe/Kawama (mapping boundaries having changed) and responded to the scale of need for decent sanitation facilities. Kamatipa was formed in 1968 by evicted farm workers. It soon attracted both retired and unemployed residents and is now experiencing low-density urban sprawl. The situational anlaysis conducted by the community in Kitwe revealed that sixty thousand (60,000) families are in need of toilets. It was planned that SHARE funds be used in partnership with Nkana Water and Sewerage Company (a parastatal in which the municipality own seventy percent (70%) of the shares) who had received a loan from the African Development Bank (ADB) to build one thousand (1,000) toilets, a project which started in 2008. Both the SHARE and Nkana projects were focusing on the same area and Nkana was enthusiastic to use data collected from the Federation’s mapping and profiling exercises, as well as train and employ community members to construct toilets.

With respect to the septic tanks, the intention was for a minimum of two (2) households to share a tank so that the loan amount to be paid by beneficiaries would be decreased. However, the seven (7) beneficiaries who had paid the security deposit live in relative isolation from each other. Furthermore, ther neighbours were not able to make the necessary contribution for materials. It is for this reason that beneficiaries ended up building individual ecosan toilets. 

The Federation has managed to secure contracts for NWSC for fifty (50) Federation members.

To date, no substantial inroads have been made towards securing land to build a public sanitation facility or obtain planning permission to rehabilitate and manage the Council-owned toilets. The Federation faces a substantial challenge where shared toilet facilities are concerned. These facilities are regarded poorly and individual toilets are favoured by community members in the target areas. 

Community capacity:

Community capacity was improved through exchanges with the Zimbabwe Federation members. The exchange centred on the development and enhancement of skills relating to the construction of more user-friendly ecosan toilets. The exchange took place on the Federation's housing site.

Scale:

This is a city-wide project which has the potential to be replicated across the country. 

Impact:

Since its inception, the project has aimed to bring about lasting changes to the manner in which the NWSC operates. The project brings together the local authority, that is the NWSC, KCC and the Federation groups to work together to address the problems faced by informal settlement dwellers of Kitwe. The starting point for this change is Kamatipa. 

The project has provided the local authority with a different approach to water and sanitation provision. It is expected that during the progression of this project, national policy will change to include collaborative water and sanitation provision to slum areas. The project has led to the strengthening of the interaction between the Federation and the local authorities as well as between the Federation and non-Federation members. 

If the Federation obtains permission to rehabilitate and manage the Council-owned toilets in Kitwe, it will place the Federation in a position to show planning authorities the ability of communities to manage public sanitation facilities. The Federation has committed to continue lobbying for transformative community sanitation projects. The project has resulted in the formation of an informal settlement network comprising of the Federation, local health committees and relevant authorities. Additionally, the Federation seeks to publish a joint positional paper with the Kitwe City Council and Nkana Water and Sewerage, challenging the reduction of the national budgetary allocation for housing and social amenities from 3.1 % to 1.5%.

Finance:

SDI Contributions:

SDI contributed US$44,750.00 towards capital expenditure. 

Resources Leveraged:

The Federation has been able to leverage technical assistance from the NWSC and KCC. There is also a possibility of the Federation securing financial assistance as well from the NWSC.

State Subsidy:

The State subsidy thus far has been in the form of technical assistance. 

Market Generated Returns:

None to date.

Costs recovered from community:

The intention is to recover the costs invested in the construction of sanitation facilities through the use of the revolving fund and income generation. Fee-paying facilities are expected to generate their won income as well as operation and maintenance costs with minimal contributions once the initial investments have been made. 

Seed money for the project will be used as a revolving sanitation loan, allowing more beneficiaries to take loans. It is anticipated to generate more income for the construction of facilities across informal settlements in Kitwe. The fee paying toilets at markets (in the second precedent of this project) will bring revenue that will be used to pay off initial investment costs. 

Loan repayments are proving to be a challenge as the seasonal nature of the work conducted by some Federation members sees them leave their homes to live on the farms. This means that the repayment rate is rather slow as beneficiaries are not around during loan collection times.  

African Development Bank. (2014). Zambia - The Nkana Water Supply and Sanitation Project (NWSSP): Lot 1A - Kitwe Water Supply Works. [Online]. Available: http://www.afdb.org/en/documents/document/zambia-the-nkana-water-supply-and-sanitation-project-nwssp-lot-1a-kitwe-water-supply-works-aoi-24169
 
African Development Bank. (2014). Zambia - The Nkana Water Supply and Sanitation Project (NWSSP) - Lot 1B-Kitwe Sanitation Works. [Online]. Available: http://www.afdb.org/en/documents/document/zambia-the-nkana-water-supply-and-sanitation-project-nwssp-lot-1b-kitwe-sanitation-works-aoi-24168
 
Musika, C. (2014). Stakeholders Team Up to Improve Slums, The Zambia Daily Mail. [Online]. Available: https://www.daily-mail.co.zm/?p=49658.
 
SHARE. (2013). Summary of Situational Analyses: City-wide Sanitation Project Meeting, 10th - 12th February 2013, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. [Online]. Available: http://www.shareresearch.org/sites/default/files/CityWide_Sanitation_Project__Summary_of_Situational_Analyses_Feb_2013.pdf
 
Velychko, O. (2013). Emerging Planning Practices among Urban Grassroots in Zambia: Insurgent Planning or Co-Production? [Online]. Available: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:710242/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Funding Information

Raised:

$44,750.00

Funding type:

Grant funding

Implementing Partners

Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE)