Zimbabwe Housing, Water & Sanitation Upgrades: GwandaBack To Projects
This project involves the provision of basic water and sanitation facilities as well as houses, primarily in secondary cities across the Zimbabwe. It has complementary goals and overlaps in practice with the Borehole and Eco-San Toilets Project. The project's target areas include Hwange, Nyanga, Shurugwi, Gwanda, Kadoma, Chiredzi, Nyazura, Harare (Dzivaresekwa, Epworth and Crowborough), Chinhoyi, and Victoria Falls. The level of services provided varies depending on the site conditions as well as the development conditions agreed upon with the relevant Local Authority (LA). One thousand two hundred (1,200) houses and one hundred and forty (140) toilets have been provided across the country. Boreholes and ecosan toilets (waterless sanitation) were modelled and constructed as pilot projects. An agreement with the Makonde Rural District Council (RDC) has been made for the construction of waterless pay toilets in seven towns, using the Federation’s shared waterless toilet system.
Progress with various local authorities is being made in that officials have been exposed to alternative sanitation options. In some cases authorities are taking part in the learning and advocacy process, throwing their political weight behind policy discussions. The Makonde RDC used their own resources to visit the Chinhoyi Federation pilot site and learn about ecosan technology. The construction of ecosan toilets in Epworth has seen the local board offering free technical support and materials (pit and river sand) for the construction of pilot models. Communities have become increasingly sensitized around water and sanitation through Federation engagement, especially regarding the need to embrace alternative systems of provision and the long term nature of the challenges. Efforts have been made to increase the rate at which development activities are being carried out. In Kadoma the Federation has negotiated with Council on the development model and agreed to identify an alternative site that would be cheaper and more suitable for the model. Large rocks and boulders were partially cleared by the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure Development in the Dzivarasekwa site. This opened up access roads, which were then improved by the Ministry. On a country-wide level, negotiations with the Ministry of Local Government, Public Works and Housing for additional land are in progress and if successful, the land is expected to accommodate no less than seven hundred (700) families.Location: Gwanda, Zimbabwe
The provision of basic water and sanitation facilities across the country. In Gwanda, phase two (2) of the housing construction is underway.Community capacity:
Community participation has primarily been through the savings schemes, with communities saving to raise a deposit, which will in turn gain them access to a loan. They then use the loan to incrementally build their houses. Additional funds are utilised to build communal sanitation infrastructure and connect homes to services.Scale:
As of June 2014, in the project had spread to a number of other secondary cities and towns. These included Shurugwi, Karoi, Mhangura and Mutare.Impact:
The project has had some effect on the approaches to the provision of basic services infrastructure for the urban poor, particularly when new settlements are being established. A number of settlements, namely Gadzema, Mpata and Shackleton, are now carrying out sanitation projects in and around Chinhoyi modelled on the Brundish project.
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Project information updated: 01 December 2015
Project in depth
The anticipated results are:
1. Influencing local authorities on development options available, in particular alternative sanitation technology.
2. Embarking on pilot projects to learn, document and share information on alternative technologies.
3. Community sensitization around water and sanitation challenges, especially their long term nature and their need to embrace alternative systems of provision.
4. Establishing linkages with important stakeholders in the development sector (e.g. NIHR, NAC) and participation in the WASH cluster meetings.This has led to joint work on pilot projects (e.g. with Mvuramanzi Trust an NGO operating in the sector).
5. An agreement with Makonde RDC for the construction of a waterless pay toilet based on the shared waterless toilets being constructed by the Federation in seven (7) towns.Community capacity:
Saving schemes have continued to introduce new types of savings that are relevant to local challenges and contexts. For example in the Matebeleland North region, Victoria Falls, the Federation has been saving for electricity. The savings have enabled the completion of approximately eighty percent (80%) of an electricity installation initiative. Savings related to health have also become important as illustrated by the establishment of a community clinic at Crowborough Resource Centre and various herbal gardens across the country.Scale:
It is intended that the project continues to grow in scale and is its approach to basic service delivery for the urban poor as well as lessons learnt are adopted in more towns and cities across the country.
As of June 2014, in the project had spread to a number of other secondary cities and towns. These included Shurugwi, Karoi, Mhangura and Mutare. In Shurugwi, families have moved on site. The major challenge that is yet to be tackled is the inadequacy of water supply in Shurugwi. The challenge is being addressed at the city level. The city is working with a consortium of mining companies that are part of the Shurugwi community.
In Karoi, families who were allocated land are now living on site in temporary structures.
In Mhangura, which is an abandoned mining town, the alliance is currently working with the whole community of Mhangura and not just the members of the Federation. The focus currently is on increasing water supply to the community as a whole. The community has managed to drill two communal boreholes using this approach. The construction of ecosan toilets for individual households is continuing.
In Mutare, progress has been stalled by illegal land invasions of some of the land that was allocated to Federation members. House construction is continuing on non-occupied land.Finance: Costs recovered from community:
The Federation has been able to repay some loans, which has allowed for revolving of funds and new loans to be issued. Negotiations with local authorities are underway to avoid overburdening funds, including affordable costs and payment plans. Relationships have been established between professionals (e.g surveyors) and the Federation, which allows for fee concessions in work. Issues of affordability and sustainability have led to negotiations with the Kadoma Council to consider allocating the Federation an alternative piece of land. Saving schemes have continued to introduce new types of savings that are relevant to local challenges and contexts. For example in Victoria Falls, the Federation has been saving for electricity. The savings have enabled the completion of approximately eighty percent (80%) of an electricity installation initiative. Savings related to health have also become important as illustrated by the establishment of a community clinic at Crowborough resource centre and various herbal gardens across the country.
Municipality of Chinhoyi, ZIHOPFE & Dialogue on Shelter. (n.d.). Policy Brief: Water and Sanitation Action Research in the City of Chinhoyi - Community Mapping towards Inclusive Development. [Online]. Available: http://www.shareresearch.org/research/policy-briefing-water-and-sanitation-action-research-city-chinhoyi-community-mapping.
Neseni, N. & Guzha, E. (2009). Zimbabwe WASH Cluster - Evaluation of the WASH Response to the 2008 - 2009 Zimbabwe Cholera Epidemic and Preparedness Planning for Future Outbreaks. [Online]. Available: http://www.alnap.org/resource/12498.
WIPO Green. (2014). Green Technology Diffusion: The Case of Ecosan Waterless Toilets. [Online]. Available: http://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/wipo_pub_951_6.pdf.